The power generation at the consumer end can be fed in to the grid so that energy generation from the fossil fuel based plants and distribution network losses can be reduced. The operation of the future power system can be shown by following flow-chart:

Fig4Smart Grid Model
Fig. 4 : Power System Operation

Future power system

The applications of advanced sensors, modern communication techniques and real time computation techniques and controllers will transform the present grid in to a future grid with the following abilities:

• Active participation of the customers
• Integrate all green energy sources and storage devices
• Improve the power quality
• Manage and utilize the resources efficiently.

The future power system will be more reliable, secure, economical, efficient, safer and more environmental friendly as compared with present power system infrastructure.

Fig5Smart Grid Model
Fig. 5 : Future Power System configuration


A five bus system with centralized power generation having radial feeders in which power flows only in one direction from grid to consumers. If distributed generators are connected with the radial feeders, the electricity generation from primary energy sources will get reduce and at the same time power quality of that feeder will adversely be affected. The interconnected distribution networks will reduce the electricity generation from fossil fuel based power plants, losses in the transmission & distribution networks and also mitigate green house gas emissions as it will allow the integration of distributed generators, energy storage devices. The proposed grid configuration will allow consumers to participate actively in grid operation so that electricity demand during peak load periods will be managed by reducing the load and integrating the PHEVs with the distribution networks.

Representative APR 391%. Average APR for this type of loans is 391%. Let's say you want to borrow $100 for two week. Lender can charge you $15 for borrowing $100 for two weeks. You will need to return $115 to the lender at the end of 2 weeks. The cost of the $100 loan is a $15 finance charge and an annual percentage rate of 391 percent. If you decide to roll over the loan for another two weeks, lender can charge you another $15. If you roll-over the loan three times, the finance charge would climb to $60 to borrow the $100.

Implications of Non-payment: Some lenders in our network may automatically roll over your existing loan for another two weeks if you don't pay back the loan on time. Fees for renewing the loan range from lender to lender. Most of the time these fees equal the fees you paid to get the initial payday loan. We ask lenders in our network to follow legal and ethical collection practices set by industry associations and government agencies. Non-payment of a payday loan might negatively effect your credit history.

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