SMART GRID MODEL(11)

SMART GRID MODEL(11)

There is now strong scientific evidence that climate change is happening and that it is being accelerated by human activities. As on date more than 90 % of global energy requirements are fulfilled by burning of fossil fuels with the consequent release of GHG emissions that impose serious warning to the environmental security for the future generations. The electricity consumption rate has grown much faster than the replenishment of its reserves and as a result the global energy crisis has been raised to an alarming level. An average carbon dioxide (CO2) emission for electricity generation from coal based thermal power plant is approximately 0.98 kg of CO2 / kWh. This intensity factor is modified for Indian conditions by multiplying with factor 1.6 which accounts for 40% loss of energy in transmission and distribution and 20% of loss due to the use of inefficient electric equipments at power plants in India. Hence, the revised intensity factor for CO2 emissions in India is 1.568 kg of CO2 per kWh of electrical energy generation from coal based thermal power plants.

CONCLUSION

Proposed Grid configuration is a vision to have distributed generators by using modern communication technologies, advanced sensors, and real time computation techniques to meet the future challenges i.e. reduce demand-supply gap, power quality, cost of electricity, reliability of supply and environmental constraints etc.

Proposed grid configuration enables consumers to optimize their investments in energy efficiency and active participation in the operation of grid and enhance the capacity of existing power system infrastructure. Proposed interconnected distribution network consists of power system communication model, flow chart of power system operation with active participation of consumers and integration of distributed generators & storage devices. This paper has proposed the future power system model to meet the above mentioned challenges and also minimizes the energy generation from conventional power plants.

Table 1: Simulation of 5-bus system

Busno. Bus Voltage in p.u. Angledegree Load Generator InjectedMVAr
MW MVAr MW MVAr
1 1.06 0.0 0.0 0.0 83.051 7.271 0.0
2 1.045 -1.782 20.0 10.0 40.0 41.811 0.0
3 1.030 -2.664 20.0 15.0 30.0 24.148 0.0
4 1.019 -3.243 50.0 30.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
5 0.990 -4.405 60.0 40.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
150.0 95.0 153.051 73.23 0.0

Total System losses = 3.05248 MW

 Table 2.

Busno. Bus Voltage in p.u. Angledegree Load Generator
MW MVAr MW MVAr
1 1.08 0.0 11.2 7.2 143.8 46.041
2 1.07 -2.125 27.2 11.8 40.0 41.811
3 1.055 -2.885 26.4 17.5 30.0 24.148
4 1.05 -3.754 65.3 32.3 0.0 0.0
5 1.02 -4.673 78.7 43.2 0.0 0.0
6 0.82 -5.680 60.0 40.0 0.0 0.0
7 0.86 -4.235 50.0 30.0 0.0 0.0
8 0.88 -4.674 20.0 15.0 0.0 0.0
9 0.915 -4.231 10.0 6.0 0.0 0.0
10 0.84 -3.954 20.0 10.0 0.0 0.0
160.0 101.0 213.8 112.0

Total System losses = 53.80 MW

Table 3: Simulation of 5-bus system and distribution network (radial) with Distributed generators

Bus / Node no. Bus Voltage in p.u. Angledegree Load Generator
MW MVAr MW MVAr
1 1.17 0.0 -1.8 -1.1 59.4 23.27
2 1.13 -1.735 14.1 7.8 40.0 27.65
3 1.15 -1.785 17.6 12.3 30.0 20.28
4 1.12 -2.205 49.3 22.8 0.0 0.0
5 1.08 -2.417 50.2 29.4 0.0 0.0
6 1.10 -3.12 60.0 40.0 22.0 13.2
7 1.11 -2.05 50.0 30.0 20.0 10.0
8 1.035 -3.60 20.0 15.0 8.0 5.0
9 1.150 -2.35 10.0 6.0 12.0 7.2
10 1.07 -2.033 20.0 10.0 10.0 4.3

Total System losses = 43.40 MW

Table 4.

Bus /Nodeno. Bus Voltage in p.u. Load Generator
MW MVAr MW MVAr
1 1.08 30.5 10.8 171.6 51.441
2 1.07 45.3 24.7 40.0 41.811
3 1.055 55.8 30.2 30.0 24.148
4 1.05 47.6 25.4 0.0 0.0
5 1.02 58.7 26.3 0.0 0.0
6 0.955 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
7 0.835 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
8 0.775 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
9 0.882 12.0 8.0 0.0 0.0
10 0.885 10.0 6.0 0.0 0.0
11 0.925 9.0 5.0 0.0 0.0
12 0.930 14.0 8.0 0.0 0.0
13 0.905 15.0 9.0 0.0 0.0
14 0.885 10.0 8.0 0.0 0.0
15 0.810 6.0 3.0 0.0 0.0
16 0.827 10.0 6.0 0.0 0.0
17 0.744 5.0 3.0 0.0 0.0
18 0.925 15.0 11.0 0.0 0.0
19 0.905 8.0 5.0 0.0 0.0
20 0.910 15.0 10.0 0.0 0.0
21 0.850 13.0 8.0 0.0 0.0
22 0.812 5.0 3.0 0.0 0.0
23 0.885 10.0 6.0 0.0 0.0
24 0.805 3.0 2.0 0.0 0.0

Total System losses = 81.60 MW

Table 5.

Bus / Node no. Bus Voltage in p.u. Load Generator
MW MVAr MW MVAr
1 1.08 34.2 20.8 40.2 16.9
2 1.07 15.7 11.3 40.0 29.05
3 1.055 24.8 16.1 30.0 19.25
4 1.05 16.3 9.6 0.0 0.0
5 1.02 17.6 11.3 0.0 0.0
6 0.935 0 0 0.0 0.0
7 0.985 0 0 0.0 5.5
8 0.917 0 0 0.0 0.0
9 0.937 12.0 8.0 5.0 3.0
10 0.940 10.0 6.0 4.0 2.7
11 0.935 9.0 5.0 8.0 5.2
12 0.951 14.0 8.0 10.0 6.4
13 0.964 15.0 9.0 2.0 1.2
14 0.970 10.0 8.0 10.0 6.5
15 0.965 6.0 3.0 9.0 5.6
16 0.987 10.0 6.0 0.0 0.0
17 0.967 5.0 3.0 6.0 3.4
18 0.975 15.0 11.0 0.0 0.0
19 0.972 8.0 5.0 6.0 2.8
20 0.982 15.0 10.0 5.0 2.4
21 0.970 13.0 8.0 2.0 1.1
22 0.913 5.0 3.0 6.0 3.6
23 0.905 10.0 6.0 4.0 2.4
24 0.947 3.0 2.0 3.0 1.8

Total System losses = 30.20 MW

Table 6: Transmission line parameters of 5-bus system

Line Line Parameters Capacitive susceptance(1B)2
1-2 0.02 + j 0.06 0.030
1-3 0.08 + j 0.24 0.025
2-3 0.06 + j 0.18 0.020
2-4 0.06 + j 0.18 0.020
2-5 0.04 + j 0.12 0.015
3-4 0.01 + j 0.03 0.010
4-5 0.08 + j 0.24 0.025

Table 7 : Distribution Line Parameters

S. No. Line impedance per Km. Aluminum overhead line of 50 mm2
1. (0.73 + j 0.38) ohm

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