Future Challenges

• By the year 2030 the electricity demand will increase by 82 percent and to generate this power the carbon emission will also be increase by 59 percent.
• 10 percent of total generation capacity and 25 percent distribution lines are utilized only for less than 5 percent of time.
• The losses in the distribution networks are higher.
• Availability of power to all the consumers all the time at less cost (especially un-electrified rural areas).
• To make the nation energy independent.
• Encourage the consumers for active involvement in the grid operation.

• To solve the power quality problems i.e. voltage, frequency, harmonics etc.
• Smart pricing and smart metering.
• Flexible operation of the grid.
• To increase the penetration of Plug-in-hybrid electric vehicles on the roads.
• Design of distribution networks to integrate the distributed generators and storage devices.
• Reduction in Green house Gas emissions.


Smart grid has the following parameters:

Voltage: It is required that voltage at the consumers end should be in permissible limit.
Frequency: It is also an important parameter, It affects the stability of the power system.
Generator Parameter: in power system, generator is responsible to provide the active and reactive power as required to meet the electricity demand of the consumers. The reactive power requirement can be fulfilled locally by
Load Parameters: load parameters have a significant impact on the operation of power system. Difference between the power generation and the power demand is very common and affects the stability of power system.

Representative APR 391%. Average APR for this type of loans is 391%. Let's say you want to borrow $100 for two week. Lender can charge you $15 for borrowing $100 for two weeks. You will need to return $115 to the lender at the end of 2 weeks. The cost of the $100 loan is a $15 finance charge and an annual percentage rate of 391 percent. If you decide to roll over the loan for another two weeks, lender can charge you another $15. If you roll-over the loan three times, the finance charge would climb to $60 to borrow the $100.

Implications of Non-payment: Some lenders in our network may automatically roll over your existing loan for another two weeks if you don't pay back the loan on time. Fees for renewing the loan range from lender to lender. Most of the time these fees equal the fees you paid to get the initial payday loan. We ask lenders in our network to follow legal and ethical collection practices set by industry associations and government agencies. Non-payment of a payday loan might negatively effect your credit history.

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