All this contributes to a set of design criteria that focuses on:

• Increasing use of green Energy Resources
• Establishing a significant amount of Demand Side Management and Demand Side Response capability with direct consumer communication
• Replacing overbuild reliability methodologies with Distribution and Substation Automation approaches
• Maximizing utilization of the existing delivery infrastructure
• Adding physical and IT security systems to protect critical infrastructure

Present power system model

Generating plants, transmission lines and the distribution systems are the main components of an electric power system. Generating stations and distribution systems are connected through transmission lines. A distribution system connects all the loads in a particular area to the transmission lines. Electric power is generated at a voltage of 11 to 33 kV which then is stepped up to the transmission levels. The first step down of voltage from transmission level is at the bulk power sub-station. This step down is from the transmission and grid level to sub-transmission level. The next step-down of voltage is at the distribution substation. The distribution system fed from the distribution stations,

Fig2Smart Grid Model
Fig. 2 : Existing Power System configuration

Representative APR 391%. Average APR for this type of loans is 391%. Let's say you want to borrow $100 for two week. Lender can charge you $15 for borrowing $100 for two weeks. You will need to return $115 to the lender at the end of 2 weeks. The cost of the $100 loan is a $15 finance charge and an annual percentage rate of 391 percent. If you decide to roll over the loan for another two weeks, lender can charge you another $15. If you roll-over the loan three times, the finance charge would climb to $60 to borrow the $100.

Implications of Non-payment: Some lenders in our network may automatically roll over your existing loan for another two weeks if you don't pay back the loan on time. Fees for renewing the loan range from lender to lender. Most of the time these fees equal the fees you paid to get the initial payday loan. We ask lenders in our network to follow legal and ethical collection practices set by industry associations and government agencies. Non-payment of a payday loan might negatively effect your credit history.

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