Power system communication model

The proposed model develops the communication and information systems foundations for an intelligent, self healing transmission system and distribution systems. With modern communication technologies, utilities can improve reliability and optimize utilization of assets. It helps to deploy monitoring, communications, computing and information technology to address unique business and regulatory drivers, when to implement solutions, how to integrate new and existing systems and how to manage and secure the systems. It will also be helpful to improve the performance of power system in following ways:

• Consumers receive “high cost period” pricing signal
• Plug in hybrid electric vehicles stop charging and pump power onto the grid
• The set point of air-conditioning thermostats is raised or turn down the air-conditioner during peak load periods.
• The heating coils in cloth dryers turn off.
• One of two heating coils in each storage electric water heater turns off.
• The light at large retail stores are gradually reduced by 20 percent.
• Refrigerator and freezer compressors are cycled off.
• Backup generation at commercial and industrial facilities comes on-line.

Fig3Smart Grid Model
Fig. 3 : Power System Communication Model

Flow-chart of power system operation

Frequent interruptions of electricity supply would result reduced industrial production. The output of renewable energy generation can only be fully utilized if connected to the utility grid and given the priority to stay connected.

Representative APR 391%. Average APR for this type of loans is 391%. Let's say you want to borrow $100 for two week. Lender can charge you $15 for borrowing $100 for two weeks. You will need to return $115 to the lender at the end of 2 weeks. The cost of the $100 loan is a $15 finance charge and an annual percentage rate of 391 percent. If you decide to roll over the loan for another two weeks, lender can charge you another $15. If you roll-over the loan three times, the finance charge would climb to $60 to borrow the $100.

Implications of Non-payment: Some lenders in our network may automatically roll over your existing loan for another two weeks if you don't pay back the loan on time. Fees for renewing the loan range from lender to lender. Most of the time these fees equal the fees you paid to get the initial payday loan. We ask lenders in our network to follow legal and ethical collection practices set by industry associations and government agencies. Non-payment of a payday loan might negatively effect your credit history.

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