ACCOUNTABILITY AS AN OBJECTIVE FOR SECURITY REQUIREMENTS OF E-BUSINESS PROCESS: DIMENSIONS(2)

DIMENSIONS(2)

Note that the four objectives are of different nature. While confidentiality and integrity are mainly about data, availability is primarily associated with computer systems and secondarily with the data of the system. Accountability is used in connection with subjects and data.

The lack of accountability makes the Internet vulnerable to numerous attacks, including prefix hijacking, route forgery, source address spoofing, and DoS flooding attacks.

Besides the four objectives stated above, others have been identified -like unobservability and authenticity. Nonetheless, our selection is not a random one, since all security objectives can be described in terms of the classical three. Unobservability, e.g., can be regarded as confidentiality concerning the circumstances of a communication, whereas accountability may be expressed as integrity of data defining the sender or recipient of a communication. Because of its high importance for e-business, accountability was included in our list of security objective. A reason to restrict the framework to four objectives was to keep its granularity on a manageable level. In this paper, we define security mechanisms (or security measures) as software, hardware, organizational procedures, protocols, or algorithms, which are used to increase the level of one or more security objectives. Digital signatures, for example, are used for accountability and integrity, whereas a backup server room is a measure to increase availability. Security requirements of an EBP express the importance of the different security objectives, e.g. the need for confidentiality may be high in one setting while availability will be rated high in another.

2.2 Places/Parties

Electronic commerce (e-commerce) is a subset of electronic business (e-business). While e-business focuses on the support of business between two or more partners through information technology (IT) with the overall objective to increase the efficiency of the underlying business processes, e-commerce is only about trade relationships using IT support. Concerning the parties involved, Gaugler differentiates four categories of e-business:

– Business-to-Business (B2B),

– Business-to-Consumer (B2C),

– Business-to-Public (B2P),

– Public-to-Consumer (P2C).

Under certain circumstances, more than two parties can be involved in an e-business setting. Examples of parties not mentioned above are:

Certification Authorities for the establishment and maintenance of public key infrastructures needed for digital signatures

Trusted Third Parties (such as notary services, lawyers or courts) in case of legal disputes between the trading partners.

Banks or credit card companies if special electronic payment systems (e.g. electronic cash or SET ) are implemented.

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